ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ဗိသုကာ ဦးသန္႔

U Thant Article From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

U Thant (January 22, 1909 – November 25, 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. He was chosen for the post when his predecessor, Dag Hammarskjöld, died in September 1961.

“U” is an honorific in Burmese, roughly equal to “Mr”. “Thant” was his only name. In Burmese he was known as Pantanaw U Thant, in reference to his home town of Pantanaw.

U Thant was born in Pantanaw, Lower Burma, and was educated at the National High School in Pantanaw and at University College, Rangoon, where he studied history. He was the eldest of four sons and was born into a family of well-to-do landowners and rice merchants. His father, Po Hnit had helped establish The Sun (Thuriya) newspaper in Rangoon. He was also a founding member of the Burma Research Society. His father died when Thant was 14, and a series of inheritance disputes forced Thant’s mother, Nan Thaung, and her four children into difficult financial times. After university Thant returned to Pantanaw to teach at the National School and had become its headmaster by the age of 25. During this time he became close friends with future prime minister U Nu, who was from neighbouring Wakema and was the local superintendent of schools. Thant regularly contributed to several newspapers and magazines under the pen name “Thilawa” and translated a number of books, including one on the League of Nations. U Thant was a devout Buddhist.

When U Nu became the prime minister of the newly independent Burma, he asked Thant to join him in Rangoon and appointed him director of broadcasting in 1948. In the following year he was appointed secretary to the government of Burma in the Ministry of Information. From 1951 to 1957, Thant was secretary to the prime minister, writing speeches for U Nu, arranging his foreign travel, and meeting foreign visitors. During this entire period, he was U Nu’s closest confidant and advisor.

He also took part in a number of international conferences and was the secretary of the first Asian-African summit in 1955 at Bandung, Indonesia, which gave birth to the Non-Aligned Movement. From 1957 to 1961, he was Burma’s permanent representative to the United Nations and became actively involved in negotiations over Algerian independence. In 1961, the Burmese government awarded him the title Maha Thray Sithu as a commander in the order of Pyidaungsu Sithu.

Thant began serving as acting Secretary-General from November 3, 1961, when he was unanimously appointed by the General Assembly, on the recommendation of the Security Council in Resolution 168, to fill the unexpired term of Dag Hammarskjöld. He was then unanimously appointed secretary-general by the General Assembly on November 30, 1962, for a term of office ending on November 3, 1966. During this first term he was widely credited for his role in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis and for ending the civil war in the Congo. He also said that he wanted to ease tensions between major powers while serving at the UN.

In April 1964, Thant accepted the Holy See’s designation of itself as a permanent observer. There appeared to be no involvement of the General Assembly or the UN Security Council in the decision. He received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1965.

U Thant was re-appointed secretary-general of the United Nations by the General Assembly on December 2, 1966, on the unanimous recommendation of the Security Council. His term of office continued until December 31, 1971, when he retired. During his time in office, he oversaw the entry into the UN of dozens of new Asian and African states and was a firm opponent of apartheid in South Africa. He also established many of the UN’s development and environmental agencies, funds and programmes, including the UN Development Programme (UNDP), the UN University, UNCTAD, United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), and the UN Environmental Programme.

Unlike his two predecessors,[citation needed] Thant retired after ten years on speaking terms with all the big powers. In 1961, when he was first appointed, the Soviet Union had tried to insist on a troika formula of three secretaries-general, one representing each Cold War bloc, something which would have maintained equality in the United Nations between the superpowers. By 1966, when Thant was reappointed, all the big powers, in a unanimous vote of the Security Council, affirmed the importance of the secretary-generalship and his good offices, a clear tribute to Thant’s work.

The Six Day War between Arab countries and Israel, the Prague Spring and subsequent Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 leading to the birth of Bangladesh all took place during his tenure as secretary-general.

He was widely criticized in the US and Israel for agreeing to pull UN troops out of the Sinai in 1967 in response to a request from Egyptian president Nasser. U Thant tried to persuade Nasser not to go to war with Israel by flying to Cairo in a last-minute peace effort.

His once good relationship with the US government deteriorated rapidly when he publicly criticized American conduct of the Vietnam War. His secret attempts at direct peace talks between Washington and Hanoi were eventually rejected by the Johnson Administration.

Thant followed UFO reports with some interest; in 1967, he arranged for American atmospheric physicist James E. McDonald to speak before the UN’s Outer Space Affairs Group regarding UFOs.

On January 23, 1971, U Thant categorically announced that he would “under no circumstances” be available for a third term as secretary-general. For many weeks, the UN Security Council was deadlocked over the search for a successor before finally settling on Kurt Waldheim to succeed U Thant as secretary-general on December 21, 1971—Waldheim’s 53rd birthday—and just ten days before U Thant’s second term was to end.

In his farewell address to the United Nations General Assembly, Secretary-General U Thant stated that he felt a “great sense of relief bordering on liberation” on relinquishing the “burdens of office”. In an editorial published around December 27, 1971, praising U Thant, The New York Times stated that “the wise counsel of this dedicated man of peace will still be needed after his retirement”. The editorial was titled “The Liberation of U Thant”.

While serving as secretary-general, U Thant lived in Riverdale, Bronx, on a 4.75-acre (1.92 ha) estate near 232nd Street, between Palisade and Douglas avenues.

U Thant died of lung cancer in New York on November 25, 1974. By that time Burma was ruled by a military junta which refused him any honors. The then Burmese president Ne Win was envious of U Thant’s international stature and the respect that was accorded him by the Burmese populace. Ne Win also resented U Thant’s close links with the democratic government of U Nu which Ne Win had overthrown in a coup d’etat on March 2, 1962. Ne Win ordered that U Thant be buried without any official involvement or ceremony.

From the United Nations headquarters in New York where he was laid in state, U Thant’s body was flown back to Rangoon, but no guard of honour or high ranking officials were on hand at the airport when the coffin arrived except for U Aung Tun, deputy minister of education, who was subsequently dismissed from office.

On the day of U Thant’s funeral on December 5, 1974, tens of thousands of people lined the streets of Rangoon to pay their last respects to their distinguished countryman, whose coffin was displayed at Rangoon’s Kyaikasan race course for a few hours before the scheduled burial.

The coffin of U Thant was then snatched by a group of students just before it was scheduled to leave for burial in an ordinary Rangoon cemetery. The student demonstrators buried U Thant on the former grounds of the Rangoon University Students Union (RUSU), which Ne Win had dynamited and destroyed on July 8, 1962.

During the period of December 5–11, 1974, the student demonstrators also built a temporary mausoleum for U Thant on the grounds of the RUSU and gave anti-government speeches. In the early morning hours of December 11, 1974, government troops stormed the campus, killed some of the students guarding the makeshift mausoleum, removed U Thant’s coffin, and reburied it at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda, where it has continued to lie.

Upon hearing of the storming of the Rangoon University campus and the forcible removal of U Thant’s coffin, many people rioted in the streets of Rangoon. Martial law was declared in Rangoon and the surrounding metropolitan areas. What has come to be known as the U Thant Crisis—the student-led protests over the shabby treatment of U Thant by the Ne Win government—was crushed by the Burmese government.

In 1978, U Thant’s memoirs, View from the UN, were posthumously published, initially by the American publishing house Doubleday.

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသား ဦးသန္႔ဟာ အာရွတိုက္ရဲ႕ ပထမဆံုး ကုလသမဂၢ အတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္ ျဖစ္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္မွာကေတာ့ ေရႊတိဂံုေစတီေတာ္ ေတာင္ဘက္မုခ္ အနီးမွာရွိတဲ့ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕ ဂူဗိမာန္ကိုေတာင္ လြတ္လြတ္လပ္လပ္ သြားေရာက္ ဂါရဝျပဳႏိုင္မွာ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး။

ဦးသန္႔အေၾကာင္းကို ေျပာၾကတဲ့အခါ ကုလသမဂၢ အတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္ ျဖစ္တဲ့အေၾကာင္း၊ သူ႔ရဲ႕စ်ာပန အေရးအခင္းအေၾကာင္းေတြကိုသာ ၾကားရတတ္ၿပီး သူ႔ရဲ႕ စာေပေရးသားမႈနဲ႔ လြတ္လပ္ေရးမရခင္က သူ႔အေၾကာင္းေတြကို သိပ္မသိရပါဘူး။ တကယ္ေတာ့ ဦးသန္႔ဟာ အဂၤလိပ္ ျမန္မာ ၂ ဘာသာနဲ႔ ထုတ္ေဝတဲ့ ဂႏၳေလာက မဂၢဇင္းရဲ႕ ဘာသာျပန္ၿပိဳင္ပြဲမွာ ၄ ႀကိမ္တိုင္တိုင္ ပထမဆု ရရွိခဲ့သူ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕ ပထမဆံုးစာမူဟာ အဂၤလိပ္လို ေရးသားထားတဲ့ စာမူျဖစ္ၿပီး အသက္ ၁၅ ႏွစ္အရြယ္မွာ ပံုႏွိပ္ ေဖာ္ျပခံခဲ့ရတာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ၿမိဳ႕ျပပံုျပင္မ်ား၊ ႏိုင္ငံေပါင္းခ်ဳပ္အသင္းႀကီး ေက်ာင္းသံုးစာအုပ္၊ ဗမာသစ္ႏွင့္ ပညာသစ္၊ ျပည္ေတာ္သာခရီး (၃ အုပ္တြဲ) စတဲ့ စာအုပ္မ်ားကို ေရးသားခဲ့သလို ႏိုင္ငံေရး ေဝဖန္ခ်က္၊ စာေပ ေဝဖန္ခ်က္ေတြ အပါအဝင္ ပညာေရး၊ လူမႈေရး ဆိုင္ရာ ေဆာင္းပါးေတြကို သီလဝ၊ ေမာင္သန္႔၊ ဦးသန္႔ ဆိုတဲ့ ကေလာင္အမည္ေတြနဲ႔ ေရးသားခဲ့ပါတယ္။ စာေပ ေဝဖန္ေရး ႏိုင္ငံေရးေဝဖန္ခ်က္ေတြကို ေရးသားတဲ့အခါ သူ႔ရဲ႕အယူအဆေတြကို ပြင့္ပြင့္လင္းလင္း ေရးသားခဲ့သလို သူ႔ရဲ႕အေတြးအေခၚ အယူအဆေတြကလည္း ေခတ္မီတာကို ေတြ႔ရပါတယ္။

ေအာက္စဖို႔ဒ္တကၠသိုလ္က ၂ဝ ရာစုရဲ႕ အထင္ကရ ပုဂၢဳိလ္မ်ားအေၾကာင္း စုစည္းထုတ္ေဝထားတဲ့ Who’s Who in the 20th Century စာအုပ္မွာ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕အေၾကာင္း ပါဝင္ၿပီး ႏိုင္ငံတကာအေရးအခင္းမ်ားကို မတုန္မလႈပ္ဘဲ တည္တည္ၿငိမ္ၿငိမ္ ေျဖရွင္းႏိုင္ခဲ့သူ ျဖစ္တယ္လို႔ အတၳဳပၸတၱိအက်ဥ္း ရဲ႕ အစမွာ ဆိုထားပါတယ္။ တကယ္လည္း ဦးသန္႔က သူ႔လက္ထက္မွာ ျဖစ္ေပၚခဲ့တဲ့ အေရးအခင္းေပါင္း မ်ားစြာကို ေအာင္ေအာင္ျမင္ျမင္ ေျဖရွင္းႏိုင္ခဲ့သူျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ အထူးသျဖင့္ က်ဴးဘား ဒံုးလက္နက္အေရး အခင္း (၁၉၆၂)၊ ကြန္ဂိုအေရးအခင္း (၁၉၆၃)၊ ဆိုက္ပရပ္စ္ ျပည္တြင္းစစ္ (၁၉၆၄)၊ အိႏၵိယ-ပါကစၥတန္ ကက္ရွ္မီးယားအေရးအခင္း (၁၉၆၅)၊ အာရပ္-အစၥေရး ၆ ရက္စစ္ပြဲ (၁၉၆၇)၊ ဗီယက္နမ္စစ္ စတဲ့ အေရးအခင္းေပါင္းမ်ားစြာကို ကိုင္တြယ္ေျဖရွင္းႏိုင္သူ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

သူ႔ရဲ႕ အေတြ႔အႀကံဳေတြနဲ႔ ပတ္သက္ၿပီး View From the UN ဆိုတဲ့ စာအုပ္မွာ သူပါဝင္ေျဖရွင္းခဲ့ရတဲ့ အဲဒီအေရးအခင္းေတြအေၾကာင္း ဦးသန္႔က ေရးထားပါတယ္။ ဒီလိုေျဖရွင္းတဲ့အခါ ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြကို တာဝန္အရ ခ်ဥ္းကပ္တာမ်ဳိးေတြအျပင္ အျပန္အလွန္ ခင္မင္မႈေတြနဲ႔လည္း ခ်ဥ္းကပ္ရတာေတြ ရွိပါတယ္။ ဒီၾကားထဲက ထူးျခားတဲ့ တိုက္ဆိုင္မႈေတြ ရွိခဲ့ပံုကိုလည္း ေရးသားထားပါတယ္။ ဗီယက္နမ္စစ္ပြဲ အေရးကိစၥနဲ႔ပတ္သက္လို႔ သူ႔ရဲ႕အေတြ႔အႀကံဳေတြကို ေရးသားတဲ့အထဲမွာ အေမရိကန္သမၼတ ဂြၽန္ဆင္နဲ႔ သူနဲ႔ တူညီတဲ့အခ်က္ေတြ ရွိပံုကို “သူက က်ေနာ့္ထက္ ၅ လ ေလာက္ ပိုႀကီးေပမယ့္ သူနဲ႔က်ေနာ္ ေကာလိပ္ကို တခ်ိန္တည္းေရာက္တဲ့အေၾကာင္း၊ ေက်ာင္းဆရာျဖစ္တာလည္း တခ်ိန္တည္း လို႔ သူက ေျပာျပပါတယ္။ ပိုၿပီး အံ့ၾသဖို႔ အေကာင္းဆံုးအခ်က္က သူ လက္ထပ္တဲ့ေန႔နဲ႔ က်ေနာ္ လက္ထပ္တဲ့ေန႔ ၁၉၃၄ ႏိုဝင္ဘာလ ၁၇ ရက္ တစ္ရက္တည္း ထပ္တူက်ေနပါပဲ။ သူ ကြယ္လြန္တဲ့ ၁၉၇၃ ခုႏွစ္ ဇန္နဝါရီလ ၂၂ ရက္ေန႔ဟာ က်ေနာ့္ရဲ႕ ၆၄ ႏွစ္ျပည့္ ေမြးေန႔ျဖစ္ပါတယ္” လို႔ ေရးသားထားပါတယ္။ စိတ္မေကာင္းျဖစ္ရတဲ့အခ်က္ကေတာ့ သမၼတ ဂြၽန္ဆင္ကုိ သူ႔တိုင္းျပည္က ဂုဏ္ျပဳသလို ဦးသန္႔ကို ျမန္မာျပည္သားေတြ ဂုဏ္ျပဳခြင့္ မရတဲ့အခ်က္ပါပဲ။

ႏိုင္ငံတကာမွာ ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးေတြ ေပၚေပါက္ဖို႔ ႀကိဳးပမ္းေနတဲ့ ဦးသန္႔ဟာ ျမန္မာျပည္က ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရးဖခင္တစ္ဦး ျဖစ္တဲ့ ဆရာႀကီး သခင္ကိုယ္ေတာ္မႈိင္းကိုလည္း ၾကည္ညဳိေလးစားသူ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ၁၉၆၄ ခုႏွစ္ ဇူလိုင္လ ၂၅ ရက္ေန႔မွာ ကုလသမဂၢ အတြင္းေရးမွဴးခ်ဳပ္အျဖစ္ ျမန္မာျပည္ကို ေရာက္လာတဲ့အခါ ဆရာႀကီးသခင္ကိုယ္ေတာ္မႈိင္း ကြယ္လြန္ခ်ိန္နဲ႔ တိုက္ဆိုင္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ဆရာႀကီးက သူမေရာက္ခင္ ၂ ရက္ ဇူလိုင္လ ၂၃ ရက္ေန႔က ကြယ္လြန္ခဲ့တာပါ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ ဆရာႀကီးရဲ႔ စ်ာပနထားရွိရာ စမ္းေခ်ာင္းက ဆရာႀကီးေနအိမ္ကို ဇူလိုင္လ ၂၆ ရက္ေန႔မွာ သြားေရာက္ဂါရဝျပဳခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ၿပီးေတာ့ လြမ္းသူ႔မွတ္တမ္းမွာ “ျမန္မာျပည္သို႔ ေခတၱျပန္ေရာက္လာခိုက္တြင္ ဆရာႀကီးအား ေနာက္ဆံုးဂါရဝျပဳခြင့္ရသျဖင့္ ေက်နပ္ပါသည္။ ဆရာႀကီး ေကာင္းရာသုဂတိ သြားေစရန္ ဆုေတာင္းရန္ လိုမည္မထင္ပါ။ ဆရာႀကီး ဘဝ တပါးေျပာင္းသြားသည္မွာ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံအဖို႔ ေနတစ္ဆူ ကြယ္သည္ႏွင့္ တူပါသည္” လို႔ ေရးသားခဲ့ပါတယ္။

၁၉၆၆ ခုႏွစ္ စက္တင္ဘာ ၂၆ ရက္ေန႔မွာ ဦးသန္႔ကို ႏိုင္ငံတကာ ခ်စ္ၾကည္ေရး နားလည္မႈ ရရွိေရးႀကိဳးပမ္းခ်က္အတြက္ ေနရူးဆု ေပးအပ္ခဲ့ၿပီး ဆုနဲ႔အတူ ပါရွိတဲ့ အိႏၵိယေငြ ရူပီး တစ္သိန္းကို ဦးသန္႔က ကုလသမဂၢ ႏိုင္ငံတကာဆိုင္ရာ ေက်ာင္းရန္ပံုေငြကို လွဴဒါန္းခဲ့ပါတယ္။ မာရွယ္တီးတိုးက ေပးအပ္တဲ့ ယူဂိုဆလဗ္တံခြန္ဘြဲ႔တံဆိပ္ အျပင္ ႏိုင္ငံတကာက ေပးအပ္တဲ့ ဂုဏ္ထူးေဆာင္ပါရဂူဘြဲ႔ေပါင္း ၁၇ ဘြဲ႔ ရရွိခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ကမၻာ့ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ႏိုဘယ္လ္ဆု ေပးအပ္ဖို႔ေတာင္ လ်ာထားျခင္း ခံခဲ့ရပါတယ္။ ျမန္မာျပည္က ေပးအပ္တဲ့ ဘြဲ႔ထူးေတြကေတာ့ ဝဏၰေက်ာ္ထင္၊ သီရိပ်ံခ်ီ၊ စည္သူဘြဲ႔ နဲ႔ မဟာသေရစည္သူဘြဲ႔ေတြျဖစ္ၿပီး အားလံုးက ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေကာင္စီ အာဏာမသိမ္းခင္ ၁၉၆၂ ခုႏွစ္မတိုင္ခင္က ေပးအပ္ခဲ့တာေတြခ်ည္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ေတာ္လွန္ေရးေကာင္စီေခတ္နဲ႔ မဆလ ေခတ္ေတြမွာေတာ့ ဘာဆုမွ မေပးအပ္ခဲ့ပါဘူး။ အဲဒီလို ဂုဏ္ျပဳတာေတြ မလုပ္တဲ့အျပင္ ကမၻာက ေလးစား အသိအမွတ္ျပဳျခင္း ခံခဲ့ရတဲ့ ပုဂၢဳိလ္တစ္ဦးရဲ႕ စ်ာပနကိုေတာင္ ၿပီးစလြယ္ တာဝန္ေက် လုပ္ဖို႔တာစူခဲ့တဲ့ မဆလ အစိုးရကို ေက်ာင္းသားေတြက အံတုေတာ္လွန္ခဲ့လို႔သာ ဒီကေန႔ ရွိေနတဲ့ ေနရာမွာ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕ဂူဗိမာန္ ရွိေနတာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ တကယ္လို႔မ်ား အဲဒီ စ်ာပန အေရးအခင္း မျဖစ္ေပၚခဲ့ရင္ ဘယ္လိုျဖစ္သြားမယ္ဆိုတာ မစဥ္းစားရဲေလာက္ေအာင္ပါပဲ။

ဦးသန္႔နဲ႔ပတ္သက္လို႔ စာေရးဆရာ တကၠသိုလ္စိန္တင္ရဲ႔႕‘ကမၻာ့ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းေရး ဗိသုကာ ဦးသန္႔’ ဆိုတဲ့ စာအုပ္ကလြဲလို႔ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕အတၳဳပၸတၱိ စာအုပ္ ျပည့္ျပည့္စံုစံု မရွိေသးပါဘူး။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ လာမယ့္ ႏွစ္ဆန္းမွာ က်ေရာက္မယ့္ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕ ရာျပည့္ေမြးေန႔မွာ ဦးသန္႔ကို ဂုဏ္ျပဳတဲ့ အခမ္းအနားေတြ၊ ဦးသန္႔ရဲ႕ စာေပေတြကို ျပန္လည္ ထုတ္ေဝတာေတြ စတဲ့ အမွတ္တရ အစီအစဥ္ေတြ ျမန္မာျပည္တြင္းမွာ က်င္းပသူက က်င္းပလို႔၊ က်င္းပခြင့္လည္း လြတ္လြတ္လပ္လပ္ ရရင္ ေကာင္းေလစြ လို႔ တဆက္တည္း စဥ္းစားမိပါတယ္။ ဒါမွသာ ျမန္မာကို ကမၻာက သိေအာင္လုပ္ခဲ့သူတစ္ဦး ရွိခဲ့တယ္ဆိုတာကို မ်ဳိးဆက္သစ္ေတြ သိရွိမွာျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ ဒါေပမယ့္လည္း ျမန္မာျပည္မွာက ဒီလိုကိစၥမ်ဳိးေတြ ရွိလာဖို႔ဆိုတာ ထီထိုးတာထက္ကို အခြင့္အလမ္း နည္းပါးလွတယ္ မဟုတ္ပါလား။ ။


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